Colonial revival in America : Annotated Bibliography

A Word from the Editor
The 2003 Web Edition varies slightly from the original manuscript released in 2000, primarily in that more than 40 new citations have been added to the previous 301 annotated entries, and all the Additional Citations have been annotated and folded into the original listing. In the future, the Web Edition of the Colonial Revival Annotated Bibliography may be updated, and should be considered a work-in-progress.
The following bibliography provides scholarly and popular literature that addresses the Colonial Revival in architecture, painting, sculpture, landscape design, decorative arts, furniture, and cultural studies from the 1870s to the present. It selectively samples the vast store of Colonial Revival literature, and is intended to be comprehensive, but not all- inclusive. Every effort has been made to identify influential works in each area, as well as those that merely demonstrate the breadth or popularity of the style throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. To this end, a partial listing of popular magazines that encourage decoration or renovation in the Colonial Revival style in distinctly non-scholarly sources can be located after the introductory essay in a footnote for the section, "On the Inclusion of Magazines and Popular Literature."
We hope that this representation of the available literature not only serves as a valuable resource, but leads the reader to investigate this formative aspect of cultural identity in the United States to its fullest extent. --KLM--

* Please send suggested additions or alterations with subject heading "Colonial Revival Remarks" to
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Key to Contents
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The Colonial Revival: A Review of the Literature
by Dale Allen Gyure, Ph.D.
Most people have a general idea of what is meant by the phrase "Colonial Revival." The words tend to evoke images of Chippendale furniture and Georgian houses. But the Colonial Revival is much more than an architectural or decorative style; it is a physical and psychological manifestation of an ongoing relationship between past and present. Torn between a nostalgic yearning for the past and the seductive promise of the future, Americans are been locked in what Michael Kammen calls "the never-ending dialectic between tradition and progress." 1 As part of this process, Americans have negotiated a compromise between past and future through the use of colonial imagery. The following bibliography represents an attempt to review the various ways Americans have seen and used the colonial period over the course of almost two centuries.
General Background
The Colonial Revival movement, with its roots in a distant past, has helped successive generations of Americans ease the transition into the newness of the present and the uncertainty of the future. Tracing the history of the Colonial Revival through popular and scholarly literature allows us to see how successive generations have chosen to effect a continuation of the colonial period to some extent by venerating antiques or reproducing objects and images inspired by that time. These artistic and cultural renewals have taken many different forms and have been motivated by many different factors. The Colonial Revival peaked in popularity between 1880 and 1940, but it has never really died. In fact, it is probably best thought of as a "survival" rather than a revival. This ongoing attraction is partially due to the widespread adoption of colonial models in many different artistic fields. Examples of the Colonial Revival's flexibility include the popularity of the "modernized" colonial house, historical paintings depicting important Revolutionary scenes, and the continuing attraction of colonial furniture. The longstanding and pervasive appeal of colonial imagery demonstrates its ability to fulfill both symbolic and functional needs. The past, in the form of the ambiguous term "colonial," has been part of a continuous present in the United States for over a century. The literature of the Colonial Revival documents this important relationship.
Identification of Key Trends Indicated by the Literature Search
A review of the extensive literature on the Colonial Revival reveals a number of trends. Three of the most important are (a) the manner in which the Colonial Revival has been promoted, (b) the various meanings and associations afforded to "colonial" over time, and (c) the reasons for the Colonial Revival's popularity. This essay will briefly address each of these themes.
Promoting the Colonial Revival
The promotion of the Colonial Revival has generally followed different patterns within different disciplines. In architecture, for example, three types of writings have done the most to advance the movement in the last 150 years: picture- or sketch books; scholarly histories; and "how-to" guides. The earliest manifestations of an architectural Colonial Revival after the Civil War took the form of sketchbooks and brief articles in architectural journals. Picturesque old houses, or details such as doorways or stairway balusters, were lovingly rendered by architects attuned to their historical worth. 2 At the same time, brief articles in professional journals praised the simple elegance of colonial building. 3
By the end of the nineteenth century, architects were lauding colonial architecture in journal articles and using colonial references in their built work. Architects, not scholars, created the first significant body of historical scholarship on America's colonial architecture. 4 At the time, the fledgling architectural profession in America had not yet reached a desirable level of organization and social status. This situation influenced early twentieth century architects' attitudes toward the colonial past. Architects made detailed drawings of old buildings, supplemented by historical studies of their construction techniques and artistic lineage. 5 The chronology and taxonomy of styles occupied most of the work. Much of this activity focused on "high style" colonial architecture rather than everyday or vernacular buildings for an important reason; the great Georgian mansions, with their fine proportions and English details, implied the presence of a trained builder or architect rather than an unskilled carpenter. 6 Impressive colonial buildings that could be attributed to a skilled designer strengthened the early twentieth century architect's claims for historical legitimacy and continuity. The architect-historian continued to be the most important scholar of colonial architecture into the 1960s. Since then, the Colonial Revival has become the domain of art, architectural and cultural historians.
Colonial Revival architecture has also been promoted by a uniquely American type of book - the "how-to" guide. 7 Readers were advised on issues concerning proper interiors and exteriors for the "colonial" look, to avoid "certain shortcomings recognizable in much of the supposedly-in-the-old-vein modern work." 8 Although these books peaked in popularity during the interwar period, their spirit continues today in the form of popular magazines - like Colonial Homes and Early American Homes - dedicated to the appropriate decoration and furnishing of a neo-Colonial house.
In furniture and the decorative arts, the Colonial Revival has concentrated on objects either inspired by historical items or direct reproductions. This strategy is reflected in a literature that promotes colonial furnishing and decoration through taste guides and house histories. The first promoters of colonial furniture were collectors and antiquarians who focused on the originals and admired their simplicity and proportions. 9 These early advocates produced books and articles intended to elevate popular taste by providing examples of colonial refinement for adaptation to modern life. 10 Contemporary designers were urged to follow older models. As the style became more popular, manufacturers like Wallace Nutting began to produce historic reproductions inspired by surviving antiques. 11 Into the 1950s, popular magazines like House Beautiful and House and Garden were filled with articles on interior decoration that promoted colonial styles, while advertisements touted a wide array of Colonial Revival products. 12 At the same time, specialized magazines like Antiques advocated the virtues of colonial design and attempted to educate readers in the merits of various colonial styles.
House histories and picture books were another popular means of promoting the Colonial Revival in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The typical picture book focused on interior details like fireplaces or wood paneling. 13 Histories tended to mix the stories of famous houses and families with descriptions of their surroundings. 14 Both types of books served to increase awareness of colonial design while also subtly or blatantly advocating the colonial idiom as a display of good taste. Until the late twentieth century, however, the colonial revival in the decorative arts avoided serious scholarly investigation. In recent years, historians have attempted to go beyond simple promotion or connoisseurship to ask important questions about the place of furniture, needlework, wallpaper, and other objects in the Colonial Revival movement. 15
The Colonial Revival also affected American landscape and garden design. Due to the perishable nature of plants and a lack of precise documentation, colonial gardens have been difficult to accurately reconstruct. 16 But in the late nineteenth century, a distinct style of garden evolved in America inspired by perceptions of historical colonial gardens. The movement to recreate "grandmother's garden" produced formal, ordered gardens in yards and estates of all sizes. 17
Colonial-inspired gardens at large estates were frequently exhibited in photographic surveys. 18 Numerous catalogs, usually produced by local or national garden clubs, extolled the beauty of smaller-scale Colonial Revival gardens. 19 Colonial gardens also played an important role in romantic "historical" tales of everyday life in colonial times; the tending of gardens was associated with self-sufficiency and a simpler, nobler lifestyle. 20
The colonialization of the American garden extended to the larger landscape as well. Colonial Williamsburg remains the most important full-scale reproduction of a colonial urban design, although the underlying armature of many East Coast cities like New Haven and Savannah is essentially that of colonial times. During Williamsburg's reconstruction in the 1930s, both professional and popular magazines documented its progress. 21 Colonial Williamsburg was partially inspired by the transformation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries of a number of New England towns, like Litchfield, Connecticut, into idealized versions of what colonial villages were thought to be. 22 Colonial villages were often resurrected by "colonializing" existing houses (through paint, shutters, molding and windows) and creating village greens where none had previously existed. Such romantic visions had little in common with historical predecessors, but their popularity, demonstrated by "museum villages" like Old Sturbridge Village and Historic Deerfield, led to the development of a pervasive stereotype. Many recent communities, designed under the rubric of "New Urbanism," consciously seek to integrate planning ideas (and sometimes building styles) from these Colonial Revival towns. 23
The Colonial Revival has also influenced American art, but it is difficult to characterize a colonial revival "movement" in art analogous to that in architecture and the decorative arts. In the art world, there was no discussion of the inherent value of painting in the manner of colonial artists, nor was there any particular effort to reemphasize the subject matter of colonial painting. In other words, the fundamental essence of the architectural colonial revival - to revive the spirit of colonial architecture through direct imitation or inspired emulation - had no counterpart in art and sculpture. Instead, the colonial manifested itself in other ways. For example, a small group of painters produced colonial genre scenes around the turn of the century depicting quaint domestic scenes that emphasized period costumes and furniture. 24 These works catered to a growing national nostalgia. They also had the effect of domesticating and personalizing history for the average person. 25 The same can be said for Wallace Nutting's extraordinarily popular photographs of faux-colonial scenes. 26 Unfortunately, there is a shortage of corresponding literature on these works - they appear almost exclusively in exhibition catalogs or artist biographies. A few historical or genre paintings were included in American art surveys, and artistic journals published short descriptive essays on the work of individual artists, but no insightful analyses exist until the late twentieth century. 27 The general public would have been more likely to encounter Colonial Revival art through illustrations in popular magazines like Scribner's and Harper's Monthly, where important events from colonial history were portrayed in a dramatic fashion. 28
A similar situation exists in the field of sculpture, where a few statues were created of historical figures (e.g., George Washington) or with colonial subject matter (Daniel Chester French's The Minuteman) during the period of the most intense Colonial Revival between 1880 and 1930. Because of the public nature of sculpture, there was probably more public contact with these historical monuments than with Colonial Revival painting. The issue of reproducing actual colonial sculpture was irrelevant since sculpture was virtually non-existent before the Revolution. Unfortunately, unlike architecture, no literature exists to analyze colonial-themed sculptural works or disseminate them to a wider audience.
Meanings and Associations
The Colonial Revival has been associated with many ideas that range beyond the revival or survival of a historical heritage. Since the expansion of the national historic consciousness in the 1870s, promoters have used Colonial Revival styles in art and architecture to advance notions of patriotism, good taste, moral superiority, family life, democracy, and the simple life.
Patriotic qualities have been central to the Colonial Revival since the earliest days. The 1876 Centennial generated a great surge of interest in American history. These sentiments also inspired the birth of a cultural Colonial Revival. 29 As architect Robert S. Peabody declared in 1876: "With our Centennial year have we not discovered that we too have a past worthy of study?" 30 Colonial design in architecture and the decorative arts was promoted as a unique artistic achievement. 31 Of course, at the time "colonial" referred to the Anglo- Dutch colonies of New England and the Mid-Atlantic, and the art and architecture so admired by the revivalists was almost exclusively English in origin. In the process, racial identity became tied to the American colonial past. When the flood of Southern and Eastern European immigrants began in the late nineteenth century it engendered fear in some of America's Anglo-Saxon Protestant population (particularly in the Northeast), which strengthened many advocates' devotion to what was perceived as America's true "national" style. 32 These feelings were intensified during and after the First World War.
The patriotic aspect, which we might think of as the most salient quality of the Colonial Revival, was quickly coupled with other associations. In architecture and furniture design, the qualities of "refinement and dignity" found in colonial examples, along with simplicity and proper proportions, were considered by many a fresh counterpoint to the busy eclecticism found of most Victorian work. 33 These qualities linked colonial styles to the balance, symmetry and proportion of classical architecture. Interest in the Colonial Revival was therefore equated with timeless good taste. 34
Non-aesthetic qualities were also important to the popular development of the Colonial Revival. One of the first ideas to be connected to the movement was "democracy." The wide variety of things that could be called Colonial Revival - from shingle-covered shacks to great Georgian mansions, or simple rush- seated chairs to elaborate highboys - could be equated with the democratic ideal of unity despite diversity. Along the same lines, the Colonial Revival decorative objects and furniture admired by consumers of elite culture were also available to the lower classes, thanks to mass production. This allowed colonial styles to "trickle down" to the masses so that everyone could get their own small piece of history. 35 The colonial became democratic in both ideology and marketing.
One of the most interesting associations attached to the Colonial Revival concerned its ethical value. A sense of moral deterioration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries inspired many revivalists to surround themselves with material products from what was considered to be a more family-oriented period of American history. 36 Writers romanticized the moral virtue of colonial life through countless books and articles. 37 Simplicity in furniture and architectural design was equated with ethical superiority, as a counter to what many saw as the decadence of Victorian culture, the breakdown of the family and the evil threat of increasing industrialization. As Karal Marling states, much of the architectural interest in the colonial past was "devoted to the regeneration of American virtue through the restoration of the American home." 38
Reasons for the Colonial Revival's Popularity
The continuous popularity of the Colonial Revival in America since the 1870s is due to a number of factors. Patriotism or nationalism is certainly a significant reason. The ethical argument - that furniture and architecture from a more virtuous time has an inherent moral superiority - is also important. In terms of aesthetics, much of the attraction to colonial architecture is a result of its "correct" proportions and adherence to classical principles. But economics has also entered into the equation. Colonial reproduction furniture began to be mass marketed to the public in the 1880s. While intended to denote handcraftedness, the pieces were inexpensive precisely because they were machine-made. Small inexpensive houses in various colonial styles were also marketed to the mass public in the early twentieth century. The Colonial Revival house, also known as "modernized colonial" for its combination of historic appearance with modern functionality, peaked in popularity in the 1930s. 39 These simple houses were almost infinitely variable and required neither the ornamentation of the previous century nor the expensive materials of the budding modernist movement. In fact, the Colonial Revival achieved its most enduring popular acceptance in the domestic sphere. The home became the center of everything associated with the Colonial Revival. As a writer stated in 1899: "The American home is the object to which we may well give our best thoughts and make it the place where religion and civilization shall dwell together." 40
Other Trends
In addition to these key trends indicated by the Colonial Revival literature, there are some other tendencies worth mentioning. One of the most important is the changing conception of what constituted the colonial period. The early revivalists of the late nineteenth century loosely interpreted the word "colonial" to include everything from the first settlers to the 1840s. 41 What we now consider to be "Federal Style" and "Greek Revival" were lumped together with early colonial and high Georgian. Near the turn of the century, more precise investigators began to differentiate pre- and post-Revolutionary styles, the former being "colonial" or "Old Colonial" and the latter "Provincial," "Georgian," or "Federal." Into the 1920s, however, the term "colonial" often described anything pre- Victorian. As researchers looked closer at older American design, a new nomenclature developed that differentiated style by ethnic group ("Spanish Colonial," "Dutch Colonial," etc.) and put more emphasis on the differences between early work and the Georgian and Federal (or "Adam") styles that followed.
Another interesting aspect of the Colonial Revival is the shifting emphases in the literature of the movement. Nineteenth century writers tried to direct attention to the colonial period in their particular field, or created romantic visions of an inviting and not-so-distant past. In the early years of the twentieth century, most of the literature was produced by scholars investigating the historical realities of colonial architecture, architects promoting it as a legitimate contemporary style, producers marketing colonial- inspired products, or tastemakers advancing the style for various aesthetic or ethical reasons. After the 1930s, a growing interest in the modernist aesthetic slowed the production of Colonial Revival-oriented books and articles, though the popularity of Colonial Revival architecture and furniture with the general public never waned. The Colonial Revival virtually disappeared from scholarly attention and popular magazines during the period of modernist domination (1960s-1970s). In the 1980s, it reemerged as a respectable area of study as well as a source of popular interest.
Relevance and Potential Usefulness of the Available Literature
The available literature provides a substantial historical record for tracing both academic and popular interest in the Colonial Revival. The early writings tell us what revivalists thought was important about the artistic past and why it should be renewed or extended. They also show us the extent of the Colonial Revival's popularity before World War II. The rebirth of Colonial Revival literature in the last three decades has included a group of scholars who have begun to ask important "why" questions rather than merely describing or promoting the style. Why did the Colonial Revival happen? What accounts for its longevity? What were the specific characteristics of the movement in different time fields, periods or regions? More of these "why" questions should be asked. An especially fruitful area of inquiry involves the relationship between the societal and cultural factors that have propelled the Colonial Revival into prominence and sustained its popularity. Michael Kammen's far-ranging work on America's development of its historical past can serve as a guidepost for this type of analysis. 42
Potential Direction and Emphasis of Future Studies
Gaps in the existing Colonial Revival literature suggest at least six main areas of further emphasis. First, and possibly most important, is the paucity of studies on the Colonial Revival's impact on fields other than architecture. The amount of architectural literature is disproportionately large. Perhaps this is a reflection of architecture's visual prominence in the environment; whatever the reason, the other artistic fields have much ground to make up. Second, more studies of non-English Colonial Revival arts and architecture will help to further define the phenomenon. The focus of the Colonial Revival in both scholarly and popular literature has always been heavily weighed toward the Anglo-Dutch colonies of New England and the Middle Atlantic States. With the exception of regional revivals in Florida, California and the Southwest, non-English traditions have generally been neglected. More work is needed on the legacy of other ethnic groups. 43 Third, the Colonial Revival's relationship with popular culture needs more scrutiny. Some attempts have been made to do this with particular building types, but the prevalence of Colonial Revival in American popular culture as a whole is unexamined. 44 Fourth, the possible influences of the Colonial Revival on other areas of American arts and culture should be investigated. For example, David Gebhard claims that the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in Southern California spurred the formation of avant-garde modernism among architects in that area. 45 Fifth, historians have generally overlooked the colonial genre and historical scenes painted in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as a source of information on popular attitudes toward the past. 46 These scenes obviously had a market; the forces that affected public interest in such pictures need to be examined in more detail. Finally, few works have compared the American Colonial Revival with revivalist movements in other countries. Examining the experiences of other countries with revivals of "national" or inherent artistic styles might shed light on the true nature of our own ongoing infatuation with our colonial heritage.
The Colonial Revival permeated art, architecture, landscape architecture, urbanism, and decorative design - almost every human artistic endeavor. The colonial period exerts a continuing influence on us, even at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Unfortunately, the true nature of this important influence is only partially understood. Hopefully, our evolving relationship with the colonial past will continue to produce significant insights to supplement the considerable body of Colonial Revival literature.
Afterword: On the Inclusion of Magazines and Popular Literature
Popular magazines often provide an excellent resource for tracing the public and commercial embrace of the Colonial Revival style in the twentieth century, particularly in the area of antiques, decorative arts, and house restorations. They offer innumerable articles on colonial antiques, reproductions and decoration, and frequently feature excellent imagery. In this regard, advertisements in older publications can be as important as the articles. Within this bibliography, certain popular magazines, such as Antiques, House and Garden, House Beautiful, Conoisseur, and even Popular Mechanics are listed. 47
Additionally, local, state, or regional historical bulletins and publications may yield useful and regionally-specific information, and should not be overlooked. 48 However, the editors wish to stress that while such sources frequently include helpful articles on Colonial Revival homes or restorations, the reader should be aware that unusual interpretations may be tendered, representing a distinctive departure from the accompanying contemporary historical discourse.49 Promotions, commercial house renovation campaigns, development schemes and the like might distort the historical validity of such works. Nevertheless, they still provide an important understanding of the enduring popularity of the genre through time.
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1 Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 700.
2 Arthur Little, Early New England Interiors (Boston: A. Williams and Co., 1878).
3 "Summary," American Architect and Building News 1 (18 March 1876): 90.
4 See William B. Rhoads, "The Discovery of America's Architectural Past, 1874-1914," and Keith N. Morgan & Richard Cheek, "History in the Service of Design: American Architect-Historians, 1870-1940," in The Architectural Historian in America, Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, ed., Studies in the History of Art 35 (Washington, D.C.: The National Gallery of Art, 1990).
5 The White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs (1915-1939) are the best example of this trend.
6 Thomas Tileston Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 1706-1776 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1946).
7 Rexford Newcomb, The Colonial and Federal House: How to Build an Authentic Colonial House (Philadelphia and London: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1933).
8 Joseph Everett Chandler, The Colonial House (New York: Robert M. McBride & Company, 1916).
9 Elizabeth Stillinger, The Antiquers: The Lives and Careers, the Deals, the Finds, the Collections of the Men and Women Who Were Responsible for the Changing Taste in American Antiques, 1850-1930 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980).
10 A good early example is Clarence Cook, The House Beautiful: Essays on Beds and Tables, Stools and Candlesticks (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1881); later, see Esther Stevens Brazer, Early American Decoration: A Comprehensive Treatise (Springfield, MA: The Pond-Ekberg Company, 1940).
11 Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury (Mostly of American Origin) (Framingham, MA: Old America Company, 1938).
12 "The House and Garden Dictionary of Period Decoration: Colonial," House and Garden 79 (March 1941): 41-44; "The House and Garden Dictionary of Period Decoration: Early Colonial Period," House and Garden 80 (July 1941): 29-32; "The House and Garden Dictionary of Period Decoration: Georgian Period," House and Garden 80 (September and November 1941): 41-44; 53-56.
13 Selected Interiors of Old Houses in Salem and Vicinity (Boston: Rogers and Manson Company, 1916).
14 Mary H. Northend, Historic Homes of New England (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1914).
15 Beverly Gordon, "Spinning Wheels, Samplers, and the Modern Priscilla: The Images and Paradoxes of Colonial Revival Needlework," Winterthur Portfolio 33 (Summer/Autumn 1998): 164-194; Robert P. Emlen, "Imagining America in 1834: Zuber's Scenic Wallpaper "Vues d'AmŽrique du Nord" Winterthur Portfolio 32 (Summer/Autumn 1997): 189-210.
16 Rudy Favretti, Landscapes and Gardens for Historic Buildings (Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1978).
17 May Brawley Hill, Grandmother's Garden: The Old-Fashioned American Garden, 1865-1915 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1999).
18 Philip Homer Elwood, American Landscape Architecture (New York: The Architectural Book Publishing Co., Inc., 1924).
19 Edith Tunis Sale, Historic Gardens of Virginia (Richmond: The James River Garden Club, 1923).
20 Alice Morse Earle, Home Life in Colonial Days (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1913).
21 Thomas H. Taylor,"The Williamsburg Restoration and its Reception by the American Public, 1926-1942," Ph.D. dissertation, George Washington University, 1989.
22 The Litchfield story is told in William Butler, "Another City upon a Hill: Litchfield, Connecticut, and the Colonial Revival," in The Colonial Revival in America. For a broader view of the New England urban transformation, see the writings of J. B. Jackson, particularly American Space: The Centennial Years, 1865-1876 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972), and "Several American Landscapes," in Landscapes: Selected Writings of J.B. Jackson, Ervin H. Zube, ed. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970).
23 Peter Katz, The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994).
24 For examples of this type of painting, see George William Sheldon, Recent Ideals of American Art (1890), reprint edition (New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1977).
25 Celia Betsky, "Inside the Past: The Interior and the Colonial Revival in American Art and Literature, 1860-1914," in The Colonial Revival in America, Alan Axelrod, ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1985).
26 Marianne Berger Woods, "Viewing Colonial America through the Lens of Wallace Nutting," American Art 8 (Spring 1994): 67-86.
27 Alfred Trumble, Representative Works of Contemporary American Artists (1887: reprint, New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1978); Charles M. Skinner, "The Domestic Pictures of Frank D. Millet," International Studio 32 (October 1907): cxi-cxx; William J. Ayers, ed., Picturing History: American Painting 1770-1930 (New York: Rizzoli International Publishers, Inc., and Fraunces Tavern Museum, 1993).
28 The career of Howard Pyle, a leading illustrator of such scenes, is recounted in Henry C. Pitz, Howard Pyle: Writer, Illustrator, Founder of the Brandywine School (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1975).
29 The context for this cultural movement, and its subsequent manifestations, is discussed in Richard Guy Wilson, "The Great Civilization," in The American Renaissance, 1876-1917 (Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Museum, 1979).
30 "Georgian" (Robert S. Peabody), "Georgian Houses of New England," American Architect and Building News 2 (October 20, 1877): 338. Peabody was an important early advocate for colonial architecture.
31 William B. Rhoads, "The Colonial Revival and American Nationalism," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 35 (December 1976): 239-254.
32 Harvey Green, "Popular Science and Political Thought Converge: Colonial Survival Becomes Colonial Revival, 1830-1910," Journal of American Culture 6 (Winter 1983): 3-24.
33 Robert S. Peabody, "The Georgian Houses of New England. - II," American Architect and Building News 3 (February 16, 1878): 54-55. Typical Victorian interiors can be seen in William Seale, The Tasteful Interlude: American Interiors Through the Camera's Eye, 1860-1917 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975).
34 Clarence Cook, "Architecture in America," North American Review 135 (September 1882): 243-252.
35 The phrase is from Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory, 149.
36 T.J. Jackson Lears describes this uneasiness in No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920 (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1981).
37 Anne Hollingsworth Wharton, Through Colonial Doorways (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1893).
38 Karal Ann Marling, George Washington Slept Here: Colonial Revivals and American Culture, 1876-1986 (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1988).
39 David Gebhard analyzed this trend in "The American Colonial Revival in the 1930s," Winterthur Portfolio 22 (Summer/Autumn 1987): 109-148.
40 Stephen D. Peet, "Architecture in America," American Architect and Building News 66 (October 21, 1899): 23.
41 For a discussion of changing notions of the "colonial," see William B. Rhoads, The Colonial Revival (New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1977), Preface.
42 See Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory.
43 See e.g., David Gebhard, "The Spanish Colonial Revival in Southern California (1895-1930)," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 26 (May 1967): 131-147.
44 Karal Ann Marling provided a guide with her analysis of popular imagery of George Washington in George Washington Slept Here. On individual building types, see John Maas, "Architecture and Americanism or Pastiches of Independence Hall," Historic Preservation 22 (April-June 1970): 17-25 and William B. Rhoads, "Roadside Colonial: Early American Design for the Automobile Age, 1900-1940," Winterthur Portfolio 21 (Summer/Autumn 1986): 133- 152.
45 Ibid.
46 A notable exception is Betsky, "Inside the Past: The Interior and the Colonial Revival in American Art and Literature, 1860-1914."
    Life style, home decoration or house renovation sources included in the 2003 bibliography:
  • Antiques
  • Architectural Design
  • Architectural Forum Master Detail Series
  • Brickbuilder
  • Cabinet Making and Upholstery
  • The Conoisseur
  • Country Life
  • Country Life in America
  • The Decorator and Furnisher
  • House and Garden
  • House Beautiful
  • The International Studio
  • Clem Labine's Traditional Building
  • Old-house Journal
  • Old-Time New England
  • Places
  • Popular Mechanics
  • Texas Architect
  • Uncoverings
  • Victorian Homes
    Regional or historical sources included in the 2003 bibliography:
  • Arlington Historical Magazine
  • Bulletin of the Fluvanna County Historical Society
  • Chesapeake and Ohio Historical Magazine
  • Connecticut Antiquarian
  • East Texas Historical Association Journal
  • Journal of the New England Garden History Society
  • Louisiana History
  • New York History
  • New York State Museum Bulletin
  • Newport History
  • Niagara Frontier
  • Old Time New England
  • Pennsylvania Heritage
  • Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography
  • Preservation League of New York State Newsletter
  • Southern California Quarterly
    Professional or academic journals included in the 2003 bibliography:
  • American Architect
  • American Architect and Building News
  • American Art
  • Architect's Journal
  • Architecture
  • Architectural Association Quarterly
  • Architectural Forum
  • Architectural Record
  • Architectural Review
  • Architectural Review and American Builders' Journal
  • Archives of American Art Journal
  • Art Quarterly
  • College Art Journal
  • Craftsman
  • Eighteenth Century Life
  • Historic Preservation
  • Journal of American Culture
  • Journal of Garden History
  • Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Nineteenth Century
  • North American Review
  • Pencil Points
  • Preservation
  • Studies in the History of Art
  • White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs (see table)
  • Winterthur Portfolio