Colonial revival in America : annotated bibliography
V. Landscape Architecture and Urbanism
American Society of Landscape Architects, ed.
Colonial Gardens: The Landscape Architecture of George Washington's Time.
Washington, D.C. : United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 1932. V

Mainly a history of colonial gardens, but also contains a chapter on "The Colonial Garden To-day," by landscape architect Fletcher Steele, which gives advice on how to create a colonial garden appropriate to modern times.

Betts, Edwin M. and Hazlehurst Bolton Perkins.
Thomas Jefferson's Flower Garden at Monticello.
Richmond, VA: The Dietz Press, 1941. V

Brief history of the gardens at Monticello with excerpts from Jefferson's writings. Includes plans and lists of plants for flowerbeds by Jefferson, and a chapter detailing the Garden Club of Virginia's restoration (1939-1941). Appendix lists of trees, shrubs, and plants mentioned in Jefferson's letters, garden inventories, and Weather Book.

Blanchan, Neltje.
The American Flower Garden.
New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1909. V

An examination of the various types of American gardens and their typical plants. Includes a chapter on "The Old-Fashioned Garden" which relates the history of English and Dutch gardens in the New England and the Middle Atlantic colonies.

Brandau, Roberta Seawall, ed.
History of the Homes and Gardens of Tennessee.
Nashville: Garden Study Club of Nashville, 1936.V

Ilustrated survey of historic homes and gardens of Tennessee by the Garden Study Club of Nashville, organized by region and time period. Includes brief histories, basic garden plans, sketches, some interiors and photographs of house exteriors that span the earliest gardens, installed by Spaniards near Memphis in 1795 to the 1930s society homes of Nashville. Older images of Civil War-era houses and properties, often destroyed by modern urbanization schemes, might prove useful.

Briggs, Loutrel.
Charleston Gardens.
Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 1951. V

History of Charleston area gardens with detailed lists of native plants and imports that would have been popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. Numerous plans and photographs of both town and plantation gardens.

Brinkley, M. Kent.
"Colonial Williamsburg."
Landscape Architect 10 (1994): 28-33.V

Brief descriptive update on relatively recent renovations, discoveries and additions.

"British and American Gardens."
Eighteenth Century Life 8 (January 1983): 93-188. V

A collection of essays on colonial gardens, including James Kornwolf, "The Picturesque in the American Garden and Landscape before 1800," Peter Martin, "'Long and Assiduous Endeavours': Gardening in Early Eighteenth-Century Virginia," John Flowers, "People and Plants: North Carolina's Garden History Revisited," Abbott Lowell Cummings, "Eighteen-Century New England Garden Design: The Pictorial Evidence," Elizabeth McLean, "Town and Country Gardens in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia," George C. Rogers, Jr., "Gardens and Landscapes in Eighteenth-Century South Carolina," William M. Kelso, "Landscape Archaeology: A Key to Virginia's Cultivated Past," and William L. Beiswanger, "The Temple in the Garden: Thomas Jefferson's Vision of the Monticello Landscape."

Carraway, Gertrude S.
Old World Gardens in the New World.
New Bern, NC: Tryon Palace Commission, 1968. V

Brief history of the gardens at Tryon Palace in North Carolina, and their restoration between 1952 and 1959, with concise descriptions of each area. Includes extensive list of plantings.

Chandler, Joseph Everett.
The Colonial House.
New York: Robert M. McBride & Company, 1916. V

A history of colonial houses designed for history buffs and contemporary builders "who wish to avoid in their possible building operations, certain short-comings recognizable in much of the supposedly-in-the-old-vein modern work;" includes chapters on restorations, "What not to Do," Modern Colonial examples, and colonial gardens.

Chase, David B.
"The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America."
Historic Preservation 25 (January-March 1973): 34-41. V

Briefly discusses colonial interest in landscape architecture in the context of a much broader treatment of the development of American landscape architecture in the mid-19th century; focuses on American adaptations of the English garden.

Christian, Frances Archer, and Susanne Williams Massie.
Homes and Gardens in Old Virginia.
Richmond:: Garden Club of Virginia, 1929. V

A romanticized look at the homes and gardens of some of Virginia's most famous estates.

Concosta, David R.
"Philadelphia's "Miniature Williamsburg": The Colonial Revival and Germantown's Market Square."
The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120 (October 1996): 283-320. V

An interesting account of Philadelphia's largely unsuccessful attempt to build a "miniature Williamsburg" in the Germantown neighborhood between the end of World War I and the mid-1970s.

Cone, John P.
"Harrow House at Deerfield, Massachusetts."
Landscape Architecture 22 (April 1932): 211-214. V

Examines a historic house and garden in one of the famous "museum villages" of the Northeast.

Davis, Timothy.
"Mount Vernon Memorial Highway: Changing Conceptions of an American Commemorative Landscape."
In Places of Commemoration, Search for Identity and Landscape Design,. Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, (ed.)
123-177. Washington, D.C. : Dumbarton Oaks, 2001. . V

Characterized at the time as the nation's finest tribute to Washington, the 1932 Mount Vernon Memorial Highway represented a concerted effort to combine modern highway engineering with Colonial Revival design. “Colonial”-style signs, lamp posts and roadside pavilions presented a selective image of American history and national identity to tourists.

De Forest, Elizabeth Kellam.
The Gardens and Grounds at Mount Vernon, How George Washington Planned and Planted Them.
Mount Vernon: Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, 1982. V

An account of Washington's "little amusement," as he called his landscape at Mount Vernon, as well as a contemporary guide to the grounds. Includes plans,historic paintings, photographs, and a comprehensive list of plants mentioned in Washington's correspondence and featured on the grounds, and selected bibliography.

Draper, Earl S.
"The Gardens at Hills and Dales."
House Beautiful 71 (May 1932): 372-416. V

Plan of estate gardens in LaGrange, Georgia, under Draper's 1930s restoration by the students of the Schools of Architecture and Landscape Gardening of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. Draper amended the initial 1800 plan, which he called “a splendid example of Italian Renaissance work at the time of the Baroque period, when informalism was creeping in.”

Earle, Alice Morse.
Old Time Gardens.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1901. V

Romantic stories about colonial and neo-colonial gardens.

Elwood, Philip Homer.
American Landscape Architecture.
New York: The Architectural Book Publishing Co., Inc., 1924. V

A pictorial survey of the state of American landscape architecture. Includes examples of many different design styles, including Colonial Revival.

Emmet, Alan.
So Fine a Prospect: Historic New England Gardens.
Hanover: University Press of New England, 1995. V

History of New England gardens and their designers, organized chronologically from the early years of the republic to World War I. Includes gardens of Daniel Chester French, Edith Wharton, and the Webbs of Shelburne Farms, with endnotes and index.

Favretti, Rudy.
New England Colonial Gardens.
Stonington, Conn.: The Pequot Press, Inc., 1964. V

A small pamphlet that discusses the plans and materials of colonial gardens, as well as how to design and maintain your own colonial garden.

Favretti, Rudy F., and Gordon P. DeWolf.
Colonial Gardens.
Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers, 1972. V

Most of the book is a listing of flowers, herbs, trees, vegetables, etc., used during the colonial period, but also contains some discussion of colonial vegetable and flower gardens.

Favretti, Rudy J.
Early New England Gardens, 1620-1840.
Sturbridge, Mass.: Old Sturbridge Village, 1962.V

Compares and contrasts the layout of colonial gardens from historical plans, with information on colonial plants and a section on how to create a colonial garden, as well as a list of sources for historic plants.

Favretti, Rudy J. and Joy P. Favretti.
For Every House a Garden: A Guide for Reproducing Period Gardens.
Chester, Conn.: Pequot Press, 1977.V

Plans, engravings and old paintings serve as the sources for reproducing period gardens as a complement to older homes, in styles that were popular between 1620 and 1900. A third of the book lists authentic plants for each period.

Favretti, Rudy J., and Joy Putnam Favretti.
Landscapes and Gardens for Historic Buildings.
Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1978. V

A book intended to help homeowners reproduce and recreate authentic historic landscapes. Includes chapters on American landscape history, authentic plants for period landscapes, and monitoring restored landscapes.

Ferree, Barr.
American Estates and Gardens.
New York: Munn, 1904. V

A limited overview centered on estates in New York, New Jersey, and New England, with scant attention to California and the South, and a section on Newport. Although some examples demonstrate colonial revival influence, this 1904 book is mainly useful for preserving numerous images of interiors and exteriors belonging to mansions that were privately owned at the time.

Gebhard, David and Sheila Lynds, eds.
An Arcadian Landscape: The California Gardens of A.E. Hanson, 1920-1932 .
Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1985. V

A review of Hanson's 1920s landscaping practice in California, using Hispanic and Italian Renaissance approaches. Hanson's largest commission was movie star Harold Lloyd's Beverly Hills estate.

Flynt, Suzanne.
The Allen Sisters: Pictorial Photographers, 1885-1920.
Hanover: University Press of New England, 2002. V

Frances and Mary Allen were particularly inspired by the mounting interest in colonial artifacts, buildings, and fashion occasioned by the 1876 Centennial Exposition. Their hometown, Deerfield, Massachusetts, often served as the backdrop for photographs of colonial homes and Deerfield citizens in period dress that were reproduced in magazines such as Good Housekeeping, Ladies Home Journal, and Country Life in America.

Griswold, Mac, and Eleanor Weller.
The Golden Age of American Gardens: Proud Owners, Private Estates, 1890-1940.
New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1992. V

Investigates American estate gardens across the country during the time period most associated with the architectural Colonial Revival. Although the authors make no direct references to "colonial" style gardens, many of the examples demonstrate the qualities thought to be colonial by contemporaries.

Griswold, Mac K.
Washington's Gardens at Mount Vernon.
Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. V

Largely a picture book, but also contains historical information about Washington's gardens and their restoration in the 1930s.

Hall, Glenn L.
"A Delaware Colonial in California."
Landscape Architecture 29 (January 1939): 70-71. V

Tells the story of a historic New England-style house and garden in Los Angeles.

Hill, May Brawley.
Furnishing the Old-Fashioned Garden: Three Centuries of American Summerhouses, Dovecotes, Pergolas, Privies, Fences, and Birdhouses. .
New York: Abrams, 1998.V

Illustrated monograph on garden ornament and architecture includes extensive bibliography and index, with a chapter of particular interest on “Arts and Crafts and the Colonial Revival, 1900-1930". Hill cites the founding of the Garden Club of America in 1913 as the catalyst for the proliferation of 20th-century gardening books.

Hill, May Brawley.
Grandmother's Garden: The Old-Fashioned American Garden 1865-1915.
New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1999. V

A nostalgic look at late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century gardens, many of which were inspired by the colonial era; contains a chapter on "The Colonial Revival and the Old-Fashioned Garden" which highlights the work of Alice Morse Earle.

Hitchcock, Susan Lee.
"The Colonial Revival Gardens of Hubert Bond Owens.". M.H.P. thesis,University of Georgia, 1997. V

A survey of the career of a Southern residential garden designer; includes a discussion of the garden restoration movement in the Twenties and Thirties.

Hood, Davyd Foard.
"The Renaissance of Southern Gardening in the Early Twentieth Century."
Journal of Garden History 16 (April-June 1996): 129-152. V

An article on the development of garden design in the South that describes how gardeners and architects looked back to the colonial period for precedents - possibly to escape associations with the humiliation of the Civil War.

Jeanloz, Donna.
"Landscaping the Pre-1840 House."
Old House Journal 5 (February 1977): 13, 18-21. V

Provides suggestions on how to create a colonial-style garden based on historical examples.

Kimball, Fiske.
"The Beginnings of Landscape Gardening in America."
Landscape Architecture 7 (July 1917): 181-187. V

A brief sketch of the early interest in the "landscape garden" exhibited by Thomas Jefferson and William Hamilton, based on historic documents.

Laird, Mark.
"Approaches to Planting in the Late Eighteenth Century: Some Imperfect Ideas on the Origins of the American Garden."
Journal of Garden History 11 (July - September 1991): 154-72.V

Well-illustrated account of the 18th- and early 19th-century discussion about “ suitable” American garden designs, tendered by Fairchild (1722), Langley (1728), Meader (1779), Loudon's Encyclopedia (1824), John Rutter at Fonthill Abbey (1883), and others.

Lambeth, William A., and Warren H. Manning.
Thomas Jefferson As an Architect and a Designer of Landscapes.
Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1913. V

Reviews Jefferson's career as an architectural and landscape designer.

Lanman, Susan Warren.
"The Rise of the Industrial Garden.". Ph.D. dissertation,University of Denver, 1998. V

An economic analysis of the development of gardens in nineteenth-century England and America. Theorizes that the Colonial Revival garden expressed women's role as conservators of the values of the pre-industrial moral economy.

Leighton, Ann.
American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or for Delight.".
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976.V

This scholarly work emphasizes features an alphabetical listing of the most frequently grown plants during this period, an extensive bibliography and an index. Includes excerpts of settlers' accounts, as well as the records of naturalists and botanists featuring newly-discovered flora and medicinal plants.

Leighton, Ann.
Early American Gardens: "For Meate or Medicine.".
Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1986. V

This historical study of early gardens aims "to make the gardens of the early settlers of New England, the founders of our country, grow again" by discovering what was grown and why.

Lillie, Rupert B.
"Georgian Gardens of Early Cambridge."
Landscape Architecture 31 (October 1940): 1-3. V

An attempt to promote the colonial gardens of New England (in contrast to Southern gardens) by showing that "symmetrical design on a large scale was by no means confined to the southern colonies."

Lockwood, Alice G.B., ed.
Gardens of Colony and State.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931. V

A Garden Club of America book full of information on colonial gardens.

Lowell, Guy, ed.
American Gardens.
Boston: Bates & Guild Company, 1902. V

A broad survey of turn-of-the-century American landscape gardening; includes some "colonial" gardens, which are considered charming because of "their power to call up reminiscences and pictures of other days."

Maccubbin, Robert P. and Peter Martin.
British and American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: Eighteen Illustrated Essays on Garden History.
Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1984.V

Scholarly effort to offset the prevailing neglect at the time in the study of 18th-century American gardens, in contrast to British studies, citing a renewed interest from 1981 onwards, after the founding of the Southern Garden History Society and an American section in the American Society of Landscape Architects. Illustrated essays focus specifically on New England, Virginia, North Carolina, Philadelphia, South Carolina, and Monticello.

Magnani, Denise.
The Winterthur Garden: Henry Francis du Pont's Romance with the Land.
New York: H.N. Abrams in association with the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1995. V

Archival correspondence, chronology and bibliography regarding H.F. du Pont's appreciation for the "agricultural landscape," and Winterthur as a 900-acre "masterpiece of 20th-century naturalism". Features plans and photographs from the early 1990s, as well as du Pont's personal "Canons of Design".

Martin, Mrs. James Bland.
Follow the Green Arrow: The History of the Garden Club of Virginia, 1920-1970 .
Richmond: Dietz Press, Inc., 1970. V

Traces the activities and membership of an organization that has done much to preserve and restore historic gardens across Virginia.

Massie, Susanne Williams and Frances Archer Christian.
Descriptive Guide Book of Virginia's Old Gardens.
Richmond: J.W. Fergusson & Sons, 1929.V

Brief descriptions of historic homes and gardens throughout the state and the people associated with them, organized by regions, and intended as a guide.

Massie, Susanne Williams and Frances Archer Christian.
Homes and Gardens in Old Virginia.
Richmond: Garrett & Massie, Inc., 1931.V

Reference book of photographs and brief histories of a number of historic homes and gardens throughout the state, divided by region.

McCormick, Kathleen.
"Coming Into Their Own: Colonial Revival landscapes are being taken seriously - even if they aren't authentic."
Historic Preservation 48 (May/June 1996): 108, 110, 112, 115. V

A brief history of the Colonial Revival garden and the challenges faced by modern reconstructionists as they consider what to do with these mixtures of nostalgia and historical accuracy.

Newton, Norman T.
Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape Architecture.
Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. V

A standard textbook on the history of landscape architecture which includes a chapter on colonial American expressions.

Nichols, Frederick Doveton and Ralph E. Griswold.
Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect.
Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1978. V

Exploration of Jefferson's landscape plans for Monticello and the University of Virginia, as well as other properties. Includes discussion of the garden literature in his library, his horticultural influences, and experiments. Illustrated with Jefferson's sketches, plans and notes on landscape design.

Rainwater, Hattie C., ed.
Garden History of Georgia, 1733-1933.
Atlanta: The Peachtree Garden Club, 1933. V

An example of the many books on colonial gardening published by garden clubs in the original thirteen colonies during the heyday of the colonial revival.

Root, R.R., and G.R. Forbes.
"Notes Upon a Colonial Garden, at Salem, Mass."
Landscape Architecture 2 (October 1911): 16-20. V

Analyzes the "colonial garden" of the Nichols-Johonnot house (Salem, MA) and the relationship between house and garden, while admitting that few original plants exist.

Sale, Edith Tunis, ed.
Historic Gardens of Virginia.
Richmond, VA: The James River Garden Club, 1923. V

A survey of Virginia's historic gardens spurred by the revival of interest in old-fashioned gardens.

Sale, Edith Tunis, ed.
Historic Gardens of Virginia.
Richmond, VA: The William Byrd Press, Inc., 1923.V

Short history on various focused on garden design and plantings, regionally organized, with some plans and many photographs.

Shaffer, E.T.H.
Carolina Gardens.
Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1939.V

Brief histories of noteworthy public and private gardens in North and South Carolina, arranged topographically. Chapter on “Famous Colonial Gardens” and some historical background on early land use in the Carolinas, including plantation crops, of particular interest.

Szczesny, Christy M.
"Americanization in a Greenbelt Town : the Colonial Revival in Greendale, Wisconsin." Arch. His. M.A. thesis,. University of Virginia, 2000. V

Documents the imposition of Colonial Revival style in Greendale, Wisconsin,as an "Americanizing" influence. Contextualizes designer Elbert Peet's plan in comparison to the garden city and other reform movements, and describes the government's endorsement of Colonial Revival as a unifying symbol of American identity during the 1920s.

Shelton, Louise.
Beautiful Gardens in America.
New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1915. V

A pictorial survey of estate gardens from twenty-six states across the country, emphasizing the plants rather than "fine imitations of lovely French, English, and Italian formalism and works of art in marble or other stone" are illustrated in most garden publications. Emphasizes the variability and originality of the American garden as its distinguishing characteristics.

Shurcliff (Shurtleff), Arthur A.
"The Ancient Plan of Williamsburg."
Landscape Architecture 28 (January 1938): 87-101. V

An illustrated account of the historical background that influenced the development of the Colonial Williamsburg plan.

Shurcliff (Shurtleff), Arthur A.
"The Gardens of the Governor's Palace, Williamsburg, Virginia."
Landscape Architecture 27 (January 1937): 55-95. V

Relatively detailed rationales for Shurcliff's choices, as head of landscape and city planning, in the early phases of Williamsburg's restoration. Includes site maps, crisp contemporary photographs, and sketches as well as a brief listing of related sources.

Shurcliff (Shurtleff), Arthur A.
"'Look Here Upon This Picture, and on this' at Williamsburg, Virginia."
Landscape Architecture 28 (January 1938): 102-107. V

Before and after photographs of the Colonial Williamsburg reconstruction.

Shurtleff (Shurcliff), Arthur A.
"The Colonial Renaissance as an Impulse to Cooperation."
Landscape Architecture 20 (July 1930): 315-318. V

The prominent landscape architect writes of the importance of cooperation between designers, builders and craftsmen - in the true spirit of colonial times - that is especially pertinent to the "rebirth" of colonial work.

Shurcliff (Shurtleff), Arthur A.
Gardens of Old Salem and the New England Colonies.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 1932.V

Written at his peak as a Williamsburg landscape architect, Shurcliff applies his seasoned logic to the expression of a colonially "authentic" landscape and city plan at Salem and other properties long regarded as touristic sites.

Streatfield, David.
"The Evolution of the Southern California Landscape."
Landscape Architecture 66-67. (January, March, May and September 1977): 39-46; 117-126; 229-239; 417-424. V

This four-part series examines the history of the Southern California landscape from the 1760s to the 1930s: I. Settling into Arcadia; II. Arcadia Compromised; III. The Great Promotions; and IV. Suburbia at the Zenith.

Tabor, Grace.
Old Fashioned Gardening: A History and A Reconstruction.
New York: McBride, Nast & Co., 1913.V

Semi-historical account of colonial gardens, with a list of sources, plantings and design types. Chapters on colonial-era gardens in St. Augustine, New Amsterdam, New England, Monticello and Mount Vernon.

Tankard, Judith B.
The Gardens of Ellen Biddle Shipman.
Sagaponack: Sagapress, Inc., 1996. V

Surveys the designs of a prominent Colonial Revival landscape designer.

Thomas, Elizabeth Patterson.
Old Kentucky Homes and Gardens.
Louisville: Standard Printing Co., 1939.V

Brief entries and photographs of approximately 300 historic homes throughout Kentucky, including mention of the original owners and significant historical facts.

Treese, Lorrett.
Hope Lodge and Mather Mill.
Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 2001. V

A tour of Hope Lodge, built in the 1740s, and considered one of the finest surviving examples of Georgian architecture. Features an interior tour and contrast style variations between the Colonial era and its revival in the early 20th century, illustrating how both styles appear in the house.

Wheelwright, Robert.
"Southern Estates of Colonial Days."
Landscape Architecture 22 (April 1932): 201-209. V

A brief history of famous colonial estates in Virginia and Maryland.

Williams, Dorothy Hunt.
Historic Virginia Gardens.
Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1975. V

Documents the twentieth century preservation/restoration of historic gardens and grounds around the Old Dominion by The Garden Club of Virginia. Includes many architectural drawings and planting lists.

Williams, Morley Jeffers.
"Washington's Changes at Mount Vernon Plantation."
Landscape Architecture 28 (January 1938): 63-73. V

A study of George Washington's landscaping work at Mount Vernon by the Director of Research and Restoration for the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association.